@Lime Every person lives in community. He lives, plays, studies and brings up there. He wants people to remember him. But he has always a fear and that fear is 'death'. Even though he has gained fame but he always think like if he dies, he will become unimportant. That fear of death makes him a pessimist. If he dies, no one will remember him. All he achieved in his life, will be in vain. He achieves inspiration after believing in immortality. This is how he becomes active and more social.
Immortality is not only the base of religion but also it gives us a good view towards life. J.H. Leuba once proved that people who believe in immortality are more than those who believe in atheism. As the god is perpetual (according to theism), theists also want to be perpetual. ( the god and human is one -a concept of non-dualism).
Immortality can be seen in our undeveloped religions as well as in developed religions. Mohanjodaro and indus valley civilisation are one of 'em. Those people seek their ancestors' face in a mirror, it makes them to think that they are still alive. But this interpretation is just a humour for modern era. Fayad elaborated it as 'a publication of concealed lust and nothing else'. We interpret immortality with other way in this modern era. A human usually doesn't even live 100 years life. Thus, he wants to achieve his goal. As this is very short duration, he can't complete this goal in lifetime. He dies but his soul takes over another body. Thus, it makes him to complete his goal. The god who is said to be kind, assists him to complete the goal.
Forms of immortality
- Personal - (i)physical, (ii)non-physical; Physical - (I)conditional, (II)non-conditional
- Non-personal - (i)social, (ii)biological, (iii)impersonal
1.Personal immortality- personality exists even after dying. The presence of self-consciousness is personal immortality
1.(i)Physical- the concept of Christians and Muslims where soul-with-body gets evaluated by the god on judgement day
1.(ii)Non-physical- the concept of Indian philosophy where soul is said to be 'body-less'. It is eternal without body
- Non-personal - person doesn't maintain his individual identity but his work and effects during his lifetime makes him immortal later. Some atheists and dualism people believe in it.
(I)conditional- it depends upon morality. People who contempt to moral values, can't get immortality. They have to obey a prominent condition. In other words, it is based upon karma theory
(II) non-conditional- Plato once said ''none of the existence can quit souls to get immortality. Every soul is product the god. The god can't destroy his own product.'' Even though, they are thieves, rapers but they will get immortality.
2.(i) social immortality- Socialites and world-leaders become immortal after dying. After doing exemplary/ideal work in their lifetime, they are remembered by the people. Some of them are- Vivekananda, Gandhi, Buddha etc.
Criticism of social immortality- Every human cannot become a social leader or socialist therefore he cant get immortality. This type of immortality cannot be said perpetual because people remember 'a great person' for short period.
2.(ii) Biological immortality- Although every human's personal life ends but he lives in his son/daughter. Each of the parents live through their son/daughter.
Criticism of biological immortality-we people see children are different from their parents in many aspects. They ain't same. P.S. every human cannot get this biological immortality because he does not necessarily has child. An unmarried person too cannot get this immortality.
2.(iii)impersonal immortality- as a water drop conspires into an ocean so as a soul also conspires into absolute power. It is theory of dualism.
Criticism of impersonal immortality- It is criticised by theist because a devotee desires to near of the god. It's existence seem to be impossible after getting dead.
I do not believe in immortality and will never believe in it too because of the following reasoning
Perception is the only source of knowledge. When you cannot perceive souls how you can prove it's immortality ? Hence this entity's existence itself is uncertain. But it may be asked, even if perception is the only source of knowledge, do we not have a kind of perception, called internal, which gives an immediate knowledge of our mental states ? And do we not perceive in these, consciousness which is nowhere to be perceived in the external material objects '? If so, does it not compel us to
believe that there is some non-material substance, whose quality is consciousness- the substance which is called soul or spirit ?
The existence of consciousness is proved by perception. But consciousnesses is the quality of any unperceived non-material or spiritual entity. As consciousness is
perceived to exist in the perceptible living body composed of the material elements, it must be a quality of body itself. What people mean by a soul is nothing more than this conscious living body. The. non material soul is never perceived. On the contrary, we have direct evidence of the identity of the self with the body in our daily experiences and judgements like, ' I am fat,' ' I am lame,' ' I am blind.' If the ' I,' the self, were different from the body, these would be meaningless. But the objection may be raised: We do not perceive consciousness in any of the four material elements. How can it then come to qualify their product, the body ? ln reply to this. we point out that qualities not resent originally in any of the component factors may emerge subsequently when the factors are combined together. For example, betel leaf, lime and nut, none of which is originally red, come to acquire a reddish tinge when chewed together. Or, even the same thing placed under a different condition may develop qualities originally absent. For example, molasses, originally non-intoxicant, becomes intoxicant when allowed to ferment. In a similar way it is possible to think that the material elements combined in a particular way give rise to the conscious living body. Consciousness is an epiphenomenon or bye-product of matter; there is no evidence of its existence independent of the body.
If the existence of a soul apart from the body is not proved, there is no possibility of proving it's immortality. On the contrary, death of the body means the end 'of the individual. All questions about previous-life, after-life, rebirth, enjoyment of the fruits of action in heaven or hell, therefore, become meaningless.