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  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @evan-elderson said in CONTINUE THE STORY WITH ONE WORD.:

    @thestrangest said in CONTINUE THE STORY WITH ONE WORD.:

    @evan-elderson said in CONTINUE THE STORY WITH ONE WORD.:

    @thestrangest said in CONTINUE THE STORY WITH ONE WORD.:

    @trose18 said in CONTINUE THE STORY WITH ONE WORD.:

    Continue the story with one word (Read from below to top replys)
    I'll start :







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  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @Rendezvous you can just tell me if i did it wrong, you don't have to be a dick about it

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @rendezvous I'll do whatever i want, fuck your rules.

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders


    ignore this : your mom is hot

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders


    ignore this : your mom is hot

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    Phineas and Ferb Genre Animated comedy, musical, adventure, ironic, slapstick Format Animated television series Created by Dan Povenmire
    Jeff "Swampy" Marsh Voices of Vincent Martella
    Thomas Sangster
    Ashley Tisdale
    Dee Bradley Baker
    Dan Povenmire Opening theme "Today Is Gonna Be a Great Day" (variation) by Bowling for Soup Composer(s) Danny Jacob Country of origin United States Language(s) English No. of seasons 3 (currently) No. of episodes 131 (announced)
    (76 whole episodes) (List of episodes) Production Running time 22 minutes Production company(s) Disney Television Animation
    Disney Channel Original Productions Distributor Disney-ABC Domestic Television Broadcast Original channel Disney Channel
    Disney XD Audio format Dolby Digital 5.1 Original run August 17, 2007 – present Chronology Related shows Take Two with Phineas and Ferb External links Official Website Phineas and Ferb is an American animated television comedy series. Originally broadcast as a preview on August 17, 2007, on Disney Channel, the series follows Phineas Flynn and his English stepbrother Ferb Fletcher[1] on summer vacation. Every day the boys embark on some grand new project, which annoys their controlling sister, Candace, who tries to bust them. The series follows a standard plot system; running gags occur every episode, and the B-Plot almost always features Perry the Platypus ("Agent P"), acting as a secret agent to fight an evil scientist named Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz. The two plots intersect at the end to erase all traces of the boys' project just before Candace can show it to their mother. This usually leaves Candace very frustrated.
    Creators Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh worked together on the Nickelodeon series Rocko's Modern Life. The Creators also voice two of the main B-plot characters: Major Monogram and Dr. Doofenshmirtz. Phineas and Ferb was conceived after Povenmire sketched a triangular boy—the blueprint for the eponymous Phineas—in a restaurant. Povenmire and Marsh developed the series concept together and pitched to networks for 16 years before securing a run on Disney Channel.[1]
    The series is also known for its musical numbers, which have appeared in almost every episode since the first-season "Flop Starz". Disney's managers particularly enjoyed the episode's song, "Gitchee, Gitchee Goo", and requested that a song appear in each subsequent episode.[2] The show's creators write and record each number, and vary musical tempo depending on each song's dramatic use.[3] The music has earned the series a total of four Emmy nominations: in 2008 for the main title theme and for the song "I Ain't Got Rhythm" from the episode "Dude, We're Getting the Band Back Together",[4] and then in 2010 for the song "Come Home Perry" from the episode "Oh, There You Are, Perry" as well as one for its score. The series has also been popular with adults.[5][6][7] Phineas and Ferb is currently on its third season

    The show follows the adventures of stepbrothers Phineas Flynn (Vincent Martella) and Ferb Fletcher (Thomas Sangster), who live in the fictional town of Danville, somewhere in the Tri-State area. Their older sister, Candace Flynn (Ashley Tisdale), is obsessed with two things throughout the show. One is "busting" Phineas and Ferb's schemes and ideas, usually calling their mother to report the boys' activities in an attempt to get them in trouble, but is never successful because of events that transpire in another subplot. Second she is somewhat obsessed with her now boyfriend Jeremy. [2] Meanwhile, the boys' pet platypus, Perry, acts as a secret agent for an all-animal government organization[10][11] called the O.W.C.A. ("Organization Without a Cool Acronym"), fighting Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz.[12]
    Much of the series' humor relies on running gags used in every episode with slight variation.[13] For example, several episodes feature an adult asking Phineas if he is too young to be performing some complex activity, to which he responds "Yes, yes I am." Also, Phineas and Ferb, along with other characters, before starting their inventions, ask, "Hey, where's Perry?".[1] Perry and Doofenshmirtz's confrontations generally lead to the destruction or disappearance of whatever Phineas and Ferb are constructing or taking part in that day.[12][13]
    Aspects of the show's humor are aimed at adults,[14] including its frequent pop-cultural references.[15] Co-creator Dan Povenmire, sought to create a show that was less raunchy than Family Guy—having previously worked on the show—but had the same reliance on comic timing, employing humorous blank stares, expressionless faces and wordplay.[16] Povenmire describes the show as a combination of Family Guy and SpongeBob SquarePants.[17] Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, the other co-creator, said the show was not created just for kids, but simply did not exclude them as an audience.[14]


    Main article: List of Phineas and Ferb characters

    A platypus was included in the series due to its interesting appearance.[18]

    The series' main characters live in a blended family, a premise the creators considered underused in children's programming and which reflected Marsh's own upbringing. Marsh considers explaining the family background "not important to the kids' lives. They are a great blended family and that's all we need to know."[19] The choice of a platypus as the boys' pet was similarly inspired by media underuse, as well as to exploit its striking appearance.[18] The platypus also gives them freedom to "make stuff up" since "no one knows very much about [them]."[19]
    Marsh called the characters "cool, edgy and clever without [...] being mean-spirited." According to Povenmire, their animation director, Rob Hughes, agreed: "in all the other shows every character is either stupid or a jerk, but there are no stupid characters or jerks in this one."[2]

    Main article: List of Phineas and Ferb songs
    "Every episode since [Flop Starz] has a song in it. It's not always the characters singing onscreen — they don't break into song just to advance the plot. The music doesn't come out of nowhere, sometimes it's just a montage over action. We've done every genre known to man: ABBA, Broadway show tunes, 16th-century madrigals"

    Dan Povenmire on the songs.[2]

    Phineas and Ferb follows structural conventions Povenmire and Marsh developed while writing Rocko's Modern Life, whereby each episode features "a song or a musical number, plus a big action/chase scene".[2] Both creators had musical backgrounds, as Povenmire performed rock'n'roll in his college years[20] and Marsh's grandfather was the bandleader Les Brown.[14]
    The creators' original pitch to Disney emphasized Perry's signature "secret agent theme" and the song "Gitchee Gitchee Goo" from the episode "Flop Starz". Disney's managers enjoyed the songs and asked Povenmire and Marsh to write one for each episode.[2]
    The songs span many genres, from 16th-century madrigals to Broadway show tunes.[2] Each is written in an intensive session during episode production: a concept, score, and lyrics are developed quite quickly.[3] Together, Marsh and Povenmire can "write a song about almost anything" and in only one hour at most.[19] After they finish writing the song, Povenmire and Marsh sing it over the answering machine of series composer Danny Jacob on Friday nights. By the following Monday the song is fully produced.[21]
    The title sequence music, originally named 'Today is Going to be a Great Day' and performed by the American band Bowling for Soup,[12] was nominated for an Emmy award in 2008.[4] The creators originally wrote a slower number, more like a "classic Disney song", but the network felt changes were needed to appeal to modern children and commissioned a rock/ska version which made the final cut.[9]
    A season 2 clip show broadcast in October 2009 focused on the music of Phineas and Ferb, featuring a viewer-voted top-10 of songs from the series; the end result was the "Phineas and Ferb's Musical Cliptastic Countdown."[22]

    Phineas and Ferb co-creators Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh in 2009.

    Early inspirations

    Co-creator Dan Povenmire attributes the show's genesis to growing up in Mobile, Alabama, where his mother told him never to waste a day of summer. To occupy himself, Povenmire undertook projects such as hole-digging and home movie-making. Povenmire recalled, "My mom let me drape black material all the way across one end of our living room to use as a space field. I would hang little models of spaceships for these little movies I made with a Super 8 camera."[1][9][23] He was an artistic prodigy and displayed his very detailed drawings at art shows.[20] Meanwhile, Marsh grew up in a large, blended family.[14] As with Povenmire, Marsh spent his summers exploring and taking part in several different activities in order to have fun.[2]

    Drawn on butcher paper, this first drawing of Phineas began a rapid growth of characters and the outline of the artistic style.

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    Paper 3 Data Analysis and Website Authoring May/June 2016
    2 hours 30 minutes
    Additional Materials: Candidate Source Files
    Write your name, Centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page.
    Write in dark blue or black pen.
    Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
    Carry out all instructions in each step. You can track your progress through the examination by crossing out
    each question number.
    Enter your name, Centre number and candidate number on every printout before it is sent to the printer.
    Printouts with handwritten candidate details on will not be marked.
    At the end of the examination put this Question Paper and all your printouts into the Assessment Record
    If you have produced rough copies of printouts, put a neat cross through each one to indicate that it is not the
    copy to be marked.

    at the end of each question or part question.

    Write today’s date in the box below.
    The syllabus is approved for use in England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificate.
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16
    Task 1 – Evidence Document
    • Open the file 1631evidence.rtf
    • Make sure your name, Centre number and candidate number will appear on every page of your
    Evidence Document by placing these details in the header.
    • Save this Evidence Document, as a word processed document, in your work area as 1631evidence
    followed by your candidate number. For example,1631evidence9999
    You will need your Evidence Document during the examination to enter answers to questions and to
    place your screenshots in when required.
    Task 2 – Web Page
    You are going to help some trainees develop web pages for The Manta Conservation Project. The first
    web page will be part of a website used to raise awareness of, and get donations for, conservation
    projects around the world.
    1 • Create a new folder called 1631_html
    2 • Locate the following files and place them in your 1631_html folder.
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16 [Turn over
    3 A trainee has started to create a single stylesheet to be used with the website. The stylesheet was
    not finished and contains a number of errors.
    • Open the stylesheet 1631stylesheet.css in a suitable software package.
    The web page and stylesheet must work in any browser. All colour codes are in hexadecimal. Make
    sure your stylesheet contains no html. The specifications for this stylesheet are:
    table Gridlines: All gridlines solid
    Internal gridlines 1 pixel thick
    External gridlines 2 pixels thick
    Borders: All borders collapsed
    Headers: No table header details specified
    h1 Colour: Red 33, Green 0, Blue 66
    Font: Helvetica Neue, but if not available
    then Calibri, or if these fonts are not
    available, the browser’s default sansserif
    36 points high
    Alignment centre
    h2 Colour: Blue 99, Red 33, Green 0
    Font: Arial
    18 points high
    Alignment right
    p Colour: Red 0, Green 0, Blue 08
    Font: the browser’s default sans-serif font
    14 points high
    Alignment left
    body Background colour: Red 99, Green CC, Blue FF
    • Correct and complete this stylesheet using the information above.
    • Save this stylesheet in your 1631_html folder. Use the file name 1631st followed by your
    candidate number. For example, if your candidate number is 9999 then you will call the file
    1631st9999.css [20]
    Take a screenshot showing the content of your stylesheet and place this in your Evidence
    Document. Make sure that the file name is clearly visible.
    4 • Analyse the stylesheet started by the trainee and evaluate its contents. [4]
    Type your evaluation into your Evidence Document using no more than 100 words.
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16
    5 • Open the file 1631manta.htm using a suitable software package.
    • Attach the stylesheet saved in step 3 to this web page. [1]
    6 • Replace the text candidate name, Centre number, candidate number with your name, Centre
    number and candidate number. [1]
    7 • Replace the text Place logo here with the image 1631logo.png
    • Make sure that appropriate text is displayed if this image is not available. [2]
    8 • Make the image 1631logo.png a hyperlink to send an email message to [email protected]
    with a subject line Tell me more [5]
    9 • Select the most appropriate images from those saved in Step 2 and use them to replace the
    following text:
    ° Place flag of Fiji here
    ° Place flag of Honduras here
    ° Place flag of Indonesia here
    ° Place flag of Maldives here
    You may use the file 1631flags.pdf to help you.
    • Resize each of these images to be 140 pixels wide, maintaining the aspect ratio.
    • Save the web page. [3]
    Display the web page in your browser. Take screenshot evidence of the web page in the
    browser and place this in your Evidence Document.
    Take a copy of the HTML source and place this in your Evidence Document.
    The trainee has started to develop the Maldives page for this site. The image 1631manta1.tif has been
    supplied to them to be included on this page.
    10 • Examine the file 1631manta1.tif. Explain in your Evidence Document why this image is
    unsuitable for inclusion on the Maldives web page and what you could do to enable it to be
    used. [4]
    Type your explanation into your Evidence Document using no more than 100 words.
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16 [Turn over
    11 • Edit the file 1631manta1.tif to make it suitable for a web page.
    • Place this image in the web page 1631maldives.htm so that it replaces the text Place image
    1631maldives here [4]
    Take screenshot(s) to show how you edited the file and place this in your Evidence
    12 • Attach the stylesheet saved in step 3 to this web page. [1]
    13 • Replace the text candidate name, Centre number, candidate number with your name, Centre
    number and candidate number.
    • Save the web page. [1]
    Display the web page in your browser. Take screenshot evidence of the web page in the
    browser and place this in your Evidence Document.
    Take a copy of the HTML source and place this in your Evidence Document.
    [Total: 46]
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16
    Task 3 – Spreadsheet
    You are going to prepare a spreadsheet to manage the budgets and create charts comparing 6
    global projects. Unless working in local currencies, display all currency values rounded to the nearest
    US dollar. The file 1631currency.csv contains information about countries and their currencies. Make
    sure that you use the most efficient methods to do each task.
    14 • Using a suitable software package, load the file 1631sheet.csv
    • Save this file as a spreadsheet with the file name 1631_ and your Centre number and candidate
    number. For example, 1631_ZZ999_9999
    • Insert 2 new rows above row 1. [1]
    15 • In cell A1 enter the title TMCP Projects 2016
    • In cell A2 enter your name, Centre number and candidate number. [1]
    16 • Merge cells A1 to H1.
    • Format this cell so that:
    ° text is centre aligned with a white, 36 point, sans-serif font
    ° it has a black background colour. [4]
    17 • In cell B4 enter a function to look up, from the external file 1631currency.csv, the name of the
    currency for Honduras. [6]
    18 • In cell B5 enter a function to total the Amount of money in local currency for the Honduras
    project. [4]
    19 • In cell B6 enter a formula to look up, from the external file 1631currency.csv, the exchange
    rate from the local currency to US dollars for Honduras. Multiply this value by the total for the
    local currency, rounded to the nearest dollar. [5]
    20 • Replicate the formulae entered in steps 17, 18 and 19 for each project. [1]
    21 • In cell H6 enter a function to add the total income in US dollars. [1]
    22 • Sort the list of individual donations into ascending order of Project then descending order of
    Amount [2]
    23 • Apply appropriate formatting to all cells in rows 3 to 6 inclusive. [4]
    © UCLES 2016 0417/31/M/J/16
    24 • Save your spreadsheet.
    • Print only the cells A1 to I6 showing the formulae. Make sure:
    ° it is in landscape orientation
    ° the row and column headings are displayed
    ° the contents of these cells are fully visible. [2]
    Make sure that you have entered your name, Centre number and candidate number on
    your spreadsheet showing the formulae.
    25 • Print the spreadsheet showing the values. Make sure the:
    ° printout fits on a single page wide
    ° contents of all cells are fully visible. [1]
    Make sure that you have entered your name, Centre number and candidate number on
    your spreadsheet showing the values.
    26 • Extract only the data for Fiji and the Maldives, where the Amount of the donation was more
    than 90
    • Print only this extract showing the values. Make sure the:
    ° printout fits on a single page wide
    ° contents of all cells are fully visible. [2]
    Make sure that you have entered your name, Centre number and candidate number on
    your spreadsheet showing the values.
    27 Save and print your Evidence Document.
    Make sure that you have entered your name, Centre number and candidate number on
    your Evidence Document.

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @thestrangest fuck your rules
    What is a rainbow?

    Author Donald Ahrens in his text Meteorology Today describes a rainbow as "one of the most spectacular light shows observed on earth". Indeed the traditional rainbow is sunlight spread out into its spectrum of colors and diverted to the eye of the observer by water droplets. The "bow" part of the word describes the fact that the rainbow is a group of nearly circular arcs of color all having a common center.
    Where is the sun when you see a rainbow?

    This is a good question to start thinking about the physical process that gives rise to a rainbow. Most people have never noticed that the sun is always behind you when you face a rainbow, and that the center of the circular arc of the rainbow is in the direction opposite to that of the sun. The rain, of course, is in the direction of the rainbow.
    What makes the bow?

    A question like this calls for a proper physical answer. We will discuss the formation of a rainbow by raindrops. It is a problem in optics that was first clearly discussed by Rene Descartes in 1637. An interesting historical account of this is to be found in Carl Boyer's book, The Rainbow From Myth to Mathematics. Descartes simplified the study of the rainbow by reducing it to a study of one water droplet and how it interacts with light falling upon it.
    He writes:"Considering that this bow appears not only in the sky, but also in the air near us, whenever there are drops of water illuminated by the sun, as we can see in certain fountains, I readily decided that it arose only from the way in which the rays of light act on these drops and pass from them to our eyes. Further, knowing that the drops are round, as has been formerly proved, and seeing that whether they are larger or smaller, the appearance of the bow is not changed in any way, I had the idea of making a very large one, so that I could examine it better.

    Descarte describes how he held up a large sphere in the sunlight and looked at the sunlight reflected in it. He wrote "I found that if the sunlight came, for example, from the part of the sky which is marked AFZ

    and my eye was at the point E, when I put the globe in position BCD, its part D appeared all red, and much more brilliant than the rest of it; and that whether I approached it or receded from it, or put it on my right or my left, or even turned it round about my head, provided that the line DE always made an angle of about forty-two degrees with the line EM, which we are to think of as drawn from the center of the sun to the eye, the part D appeared always similarly red; but that as soon as I made this angle DEM even a little larger, the red color disappeared; and if I made the angle a little smaller, the color did not disappear all at once, but divided itself first as if into two parts, less brilliant, and in which I could see yellow, blue, and other colors ... When I examined more particularly, in the globe BCD, what it was which made the part D appear red, I found that it was the rays of the sun which, coming from A to B, bend on entering the water at the point B, and to pass to C, where they are reflected to D, and bending there again as they pass out of the water, proceed to the point ".

    This quotation illustrates how the shape of the rainbow is explained. To simplify the analysis, consider the path of a ray of monochromatic light through a single spherical raindrop. Imagine how light is refracted as it enters the raindrop, then how it is reflected by the internal, curved, mirror-like surface of the raindrop, and finally how it is refracted as it emerges from the drop. If we then apply the results for a single raindrop to a whole collection of raindrops in the sky, we can visualize the shape of the bow.

    The traditional diagram to illustrate this is shown here as adapted from Humphreys, Physics of the Air. It represents the path of one light ray incident on a water droplet from the direction SA. As the light beam enters the surface of the drop at A, it is bent (refracted) a little and strikes the inside wall of the drop at B, where it is reflected back to C. As it emerges from the drop it is refracted (bent) again into the direction CE. The angle D represents a measure of the deviation of the emergent ray from its original direction. Descartes calculated this deviation for a ray of red light to be about 180 - 42 or 138 degrees.

    The ray drawn here is significant because it represents the ray that has the smallest angle of deviation of all the rays incident upon the raindrop. It is called the Descarte or rainbow ray and much of the sunlight as it is refracted and reflected through the raindrop is focused along this ray. Thus the reflected light is diffuse and weaker except near the direction of this rainbow ray. It is this concentration of rays near the minimum deviation that gives rise to the arc of rainbow.

    The sun is so far away that we can, to a good approximation, assume that sunlight can be represented by a set of parallel rays all falling on the water globule and being refracted, reflected internally, and refracted again on emergence from the droplet in a manner like the figure. Descartes writes

    I took my pen and made an accurate calculation of the paths of the rays which fall on the different points of a globe of water to determine at which angles, after two refractions and one or two reflections they will come to the eye, and I then found that after one reflection and two refractions there are many more rays which can be seen at an angle of from forty-one to forty-two degrees than at any smaller angle; and that there are none which can be seen at a larger angle" (the angle he is referring to is 180 - D).

    A typical raindrop is spherical and therefore its effect on sunlight is symmetrical about an axis through the center of the drop and the source of light (in this case the sun). Because of this symmetry, the two-dimensional illustration of the figure serves us well and the complete picture can be visualized by rotating the two dimensional illustration about the axis of symmetry. The symmetry of the focusing effect of each drop is such that whenever we view a raindrop along the line of sight defined by the rainbow ray, we will see a bright spot of reflected/refracted sunlight. Referring to the figure, we see that the rainbow ray for red light makes an angle of 42 degrees between the direction of the incident sunlight and the line of sight. Therefore, as long as the raindrop is viewed along a line of sight that makes this angle with the direction of incident light, we will see a brightening. The rainbow is thus a circle of angular radius 42 degrees, centered on the antisolar point, as shown schematically here.

    We don't see a full circle because the earth gets in the way. The lower the sun is to the horizon, the more of the circle we see -right at sunset, we would see a full semicircle of the rainbow with the top of the arch 42 degrees above the horizon. The higher the sun is in the sky, the smaller is the arch of the rainbow above the horizon.

    What makes the colors in the rainbow?

    The traditional description of the rainbow is that it is made up of seven colors - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Actually, the rainbow is a whole continuum of colors from red to violet and even beyond the colors that the eye can see.
    The colors of the rainbow arise from two basic facts:

    Sunlight is made up of the whole range of colors that the eye can detect. The range of sunlight colors, when combined, looks white to the eye. This property of sunlight was first demonstrated by Sir Isaac Newton in 1666.
    Light of different colors is refracted by different amounts when it passes from one medium (air, for example) into another (water or glass, for example).
    Descartes and Willebrord Snell had determined how a ray of light is bent, or refracted, as it traverses regions of different densities, such as air and water. When the light paths through a raindrop are traced for red and blue light, one finds that the angle of deviation is different for the two colors because blue light is bent or refracted more than is the red light. This implies that when we see a rainbow and its band of colors we are looking at light refracted and reflected from different raindrops, some viewed at an angle of 42 degrees; some, at an angle of 40 degrees, and some in between. This is illustrated in this drawing, adapted from Johnson's Physical Meteorology. This rainbow of two colors would have a width of almost 2 degrees (about four times larger than the angular size as the full moon). Note that even though blue light is refracted more than red light in a single drop, we see the blue light on the inner part of the arc because we are looking along a different line of sight that has a smaller angle (40 degrees) for the blue.
    Ana excellent laboratory exercise on the mathematics of rainbows is here, and F. K. Hwang has produced a fine Java Applet illustrating this refraction, and Nigel Greenwood has written a program that operates in MS Excel that illustrates the way the angles change as a function of the sun's angle.

    What makes a double rainbow?

    Sometimes we see two rainbows at once, what causes this? We have followed the path of a ray of sunlight as it enters and is reflected inside the raindrop. But not all of the energy of the ray escapes the raindrop after it is reflected once. A part of the ray is reflected again and travels along inside the drop to emerge from the drop. The rainbow we normally see is called the primary rainbow and is produced by one internal reflection; the secondary rainbow arises from two internal reflections and the rays exit the drop at an angle of 50 degrees° rather than the 42°degrees for the red primary bow. Blue light emerges at an even larger angle of 53 degrees°. his effect produces a secondary rainbow that has its colors reversed compared to the primary, as illustrated in the drawing, adapted from the Science Universe Series Sight, Light, and Color.
    It is possible for light to be reflected more than twice within a raindrop, and one can calculate where the higher order rainbows might be seen; but these are never seen in normal circumstances.

    Why is the sky brighter inside a rainbow?

    Notice the contrast between the sky inside the arc and outside it. When one studies the refraction of sunlight on a raindrop one finds that there are many rays emerging at angles smaller than the rainbow ray, but essentially no light from single internal reflections at angles greater than this ray. Thus there is a lot of light within the bow, and very little beyond it. Because this light is a mix of all the rainbow colors, it is white. In the case of the secondary rainbow, the rainbow ray is the smallest angle and there are many rays emerging at angles greater than this one. Therefore the two bows combine to define a dark region between them - called Alexander's Dark Band, in honor of Alexander of Aphrodisias who discussed it some 1800 years ago!
    What are Supernumerary Arcs?

    In some rainbows, faint arcs just inside and near the top of the primary bow can be seen. These are called supernumerary arcs and were explained by Thomas Young in 1804 as arising from the interference of light along certain rays within the drop. Young's work had a profound influence on theories of the physical nature of light and his studies of the rainbow were a fundamental element of this. Young interpreted light in terms of it being a wave of some sort and that when two rays are scattered in the same direction within a raindrop, they may interfere with each other. Depending on how the rays mesh together, the interference can be constructive, in which case the rays produce a brightening, or destructive, in which case there is a reduction in brightness. This phenomenon is clearly described in Nussenzveig's article "The Theory of the Rainbow" in which he writes: "At angles very close to the rainbow angle the two paths through the droplet differ only slightly, and so the two rays interfere constructively. As the angle increases, the two rays follow paths of substantially different lengths. When the difference equals half of the wavelength, the interference is completely destructive; at still greater angles the beams reinforce again. The result is a periodic variation in the intensity of the scattered light, a series of alternately bright and dark bands."
    Mikolaj and Pawel Sawicki have posted several beautiful photographs of rainbows showing these arcs.

    The "purity" of the colors of the rainbow depends on the size of the raindrops. Large drops (diameters of a few millimeters) give bright rainbows with well defined colors; small droplets (diameters of about 0.01 mm) produce rainbows of overlapping colors that appear nearly white. And remember that the models that predict a rainbow arc all assume spherical shapes for raindrops.

    There is never a single size for water drops in rain but a mixture of many sizes and shapes. This results in a composite rainbow. Raindrops generally don't "grow" to radii larger than about 0.5 cm without breaking up because of collisions with other raindrops, although occasionally drops a few millimeters larger in radius have been observed when there are very few drops (and so few collisions between the drops) in a rainstorm. Bill Livingston suggests: " If you are brave enough, look up during a thunder shower at the falling drops. Some may hit your eye (or glasses), but this is not fatal. You will actually see that the drops are distorted and are oscillating."

    It is the surface tension of water that moulds raindrops into spherical shapes, if no other forces are acting on them. But as a drop falls in the air, the 'drag' causes a distortion in its shape, making it somewhat flattened. Deviations from a spherical shape have been measured by suspending drops in the air stream of a vertical wind tunnel (Pruppacher and Beard, 1970, and Pruppacher and Pitter, 1971). Small drops of radius less than 140 microns (0.014 cm) remain spherical, but as the size of the drop increases, the flattening becomes noticeable. For drops with a radius near 0.14 cm, the height/width ratio is 0.85. This flattening increases for larger drops.

    Spherical drops produce symmetrical rainbows, but rainbows seen when the sun is near the horizon are often observed to be brighter at their sides, the vertical part, than at their top. Alistair Fraser has explained this phenomenon as resulting from the complex mixture of size and shape of the raindrops. The reflection and refraction of light from a flattened water droplet is not symmetrical. For a flattened drop, some of the rainbow ray is lost at top and bottom of the drop. Therefore, we see the rays from these flattened drops only as we view them horizontally; thus the rainbow produced by the large drops is is bright at its base. Near the top of the arc only small spherical drops produce the fainter rainbow.

    What does a rainbow look like through dark glasses?

    This is a "trick" question because the answer depends on whether or not your glasses are Polaroid. When light is reflected at certain angles it becomes polarized (discussed again quite well in Nussenzveig's article), and it has been found that the rainbow angle is close to that angle of reflection at which incident, unpolarized light (sunlight) is almost completely polarized. So if you look at a rainbow with Polaroid sunglasses and rotate the lenses around the line of sight, part of the rainbow will disappear!
    Other Questions about the Rainbow

    Humphreys (Physics of the Air, p. 478) discusses several "popular" questions about the rainbow:
    "What is the rainbow's distance?" It is nearby or far away, according to where the raindrops are, extending from the closest to the farthest illuminated drops along the elements of the rainbow cone.
    Why is the rainbow so frequently seen during summer and so seldom during winter?" To see a rainbow, one has to have rain and sunshine. In the winter, water droplets freeze into ice particles that do not produce a rainbow but scatter light in other very interesting patterns.
    "Why are rainbows so rarely seen at noon?" Remember that the center of the rainbow's circle is opposite the sun so that it is as far below the level of the observer as the sun is above it.
    "Do two people ever see the same rainbow?" Humphreys points out that "since the rainbow is a special distribution of colors (produced in a particular way) with reference to a definite point - the eye of the observer - and as no single distribution can be the same for two separate points, it follows that two observers do not, and cannot, see the same rainbow." In fact, each eye sees its own rainbow!!
    Of course, a camera lens will record an image of a rainbow which can then be seen my many people! (thanks to Tom and Rachel Ludovise for pointing this out!)
    "Can the same rainbow be seen by reflection as seen directly?" On the basis of the arguments given in the preceding question, bows appropriate for two different points are produced by different drops; hence, a bow seen by reflection is not the same as the one seen directly".
    What are Reflection Rainbows?

    A reflection rainbow is defined as one produced by the reflection of the source of incident light (usually the sun). Photographs of them are perhaps the most impressive of rainbow photographs. The reflected rainbow may be considered as a combination of two rainbows produced by sunlight coming from two different directions - one directly from the sun, the other from the reflected image of the sun. The angles are quite different and therefore the elevation of the rainbow arcs will be correspondingly different. This is illustrated in a diagram adapted from Greenler"s Rainbows, Halos, and Glories. The rainbow produced by sunlight reflected from the water is higher in the sky than is the one produced by direct sunlight.
    What is a Lunar Rainbow?

    A full moon is bright enough to have its light refracted by raindrops just as is the case for the sun. Moonlight is much fainter, of course, so the lunar rainbow is not nearly as bright as one produced by sunlight. Lunar rainbows have infrequently been observed since the time of Aristotle or before. A graphic description of one was writen by Dr. Mikkelson.
    Rainbows and Proverbs

    There is a delightful book by Humphreys entitled Weather Proverbs and Paradoxes. In it, he discusses the meteorological justifications of some proverbs associated with rainbows, such as "Rainbow at night, shepherd's delight;Rainbow in morning, shepherds take warning,"If there be a rainbow in the eve,It will rain and leave; But if there be a rainbow in the morrow It will neither lend nor borrow", and Rainbow to windward, foul fall the day; Rainbow to leeward, damp runs away."
    The meteorological discussion Humphreys presents is appropriate for the northern temperate zones that have a prevailing wind, and also for a normal diurnal change in the weather.


    William Livingston, a solar astronomer who has also specialized in atmospheric optical phenomena suggests the following: "Try a hose spray yourself. As you produce a fine spray supernumeraries up to order three become nicely visible. "Try to estimate the size of these drops compared to a raindrop. ..."Another thing to try. View a water droplet on a leaf close-up - an inch from your eye. At the rainbow angle you may catch a nice bit of color!"
    In Minnaert's excellent book Light and Colour in the Open Air you can find a number of experiments on how to study the nature of rainbows. Here is an illustration of one of his suggestions. Other demonstration projects are listed here .

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @thestrangest nice .ly link there, do you make good money off those?
    (if you didn't know these 'bit' sites when you click on them the guy who shared them gets money)

  • GSP Patrol | The Proofreaders

    @evan-elderson your mom happened

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